Traditionally, four patterns of nursing knowledge, or ways of knowing, have been used in the field of nursing these include empirics, or the science of nursing , esthetics, or the art of nursing , personal knowledge, and ethics (mcewen & wills, 2011. Pattern of knowing in nursing is used to examine the kind of knowing in nursing that provides the discipline with its particular perspective and significance. The four patterns of knowing are empirics, ethics, personal knowledge, and esthetics carper (1978) defines empirical knowledge as being factual, descriptive and ultimately aimed at developing abstract and theoretical explanations. It provides an overview of carper's (1978) four fundamental patterns of knowing in addition to discussing knowing and knowledge within the pattern of emancipatory knowing developed by chinn and kramer (2008.
Barbara carper, a professor at the college of nursing at texas woman's university, wrote an essay in 1978 titled the fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing, that outlines four guidelines to help nurses meet patients' needs. Carper's pattern of knowing 6776 words | 28 pages health science journal ® volume 5, issue 4 (2011) the value and significance of knowing the patient for professional practice, according to the carper's patterns of knowing marianna mantzorou 1, dimos mastrogiannis 2 1. The ethical way of knowing she called these the four ways, or patterns, of knowing ethical knowing allows nurses to make the decision that will cause the least harm, depending on the values being considered.
The four patterns of knowing as identify by carper, are empirics, esthetics, personal knowledge and ethics more recently, chin & kramer (2008) added the fifth, emancipatory knowing (jackson, 2009) as stated by carper (1978), these patterns represented the complex phenomenon of knowing that nurses use when caring for their patients. In an epistemological study of nursing knowledge, carper identifies four fundamental patterns of knowing from the analysis of the conceptual and the syntactical of nursing knowledge (jacobs, 1998. Define the 4 patterns of knowing (empirics, ethics, personal knowledge, and esthetics) described by barbara carper compare definitions that you find in the literature with those described by barbara carper. Emancipatory knowing (chinn and kramer) emancipatory knowing addresses the social and political context of nursing and healthcare and critiques the four fundamental patterns of knowing it recognises serious social barriers to health and well-being emancipatory knowing requires an understanding of the nature of knowledge praxis is the process of.
This article reconsiders the fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing in light of the challenge of narrow empirics in the form of evidence-based practiceobjections to the dominance of evidence-based practice are reviewed, and the reasons for it are examined. The key ideas that the author barbara carper is trying to communicate in this article are (1) nurses have to aware of the four fundamental patterns of knowing, and (2) these four fundamental patterns are of utmost importance if one is to become a nurse. This pattern would provide a way to move forward in knowledge-building through attempting to deeply understand the meaning of an experience 16 white described another pattern called sociopolitical knowing, a way of knowing derived from interpretive and critical traditions as a context in which to frame the 4 basic patterns of knowing 17.
Four fundamental patterns of knowing have been identified from an analysis of the conceptual and syntactical structure of nurs-ing knowledge 1 the four patterns are. Method and material: in this paper the four patterns of knowing according to carper will be analysed according to these patterns, a description of the meaning and strategies of knowing. The revised courses incorporate various adult learning principles, including carper's (4) patterns of 4 ways of knowing: empirical, ethical, personal, and aesthetic empirical knowing consists of empirical data or factual knowledge. The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the knowing the patient for professional practice, according to the carper's patterns of knowing method and material: in this paper the four patterns of knowing according to carper will be analysed. Knowing is a cognitive process, and four patterns of knowing—empirical, ethical, personal, and aesthetic—characterize nursing these patterns don't exist in isolation nurses use them together and to varying degrees based on each situation.
Ways of knowing carper's (1978) fundamental ways of knowing ranks as one of the most influential pieces of nursing writing of the twentieth century (wainwright, 2000) this theory was created by barbara carper: who discussed the integration of the four fundamental ways of knowing. The four patterns of knowing -- empirics, esthetics, ethics, personal knowledge -- are evaluated as to the extent to which they can be emulated in clinical expert systems, given constraints imposed by the current technology of these systems. The art of knowing in nursing theory, more formerly known as the fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing, describes four basic concepts, or patterns of knowledge, as they relate to their advanced application in clinical practice.